Innovators Under 352003
Since 1999, the editors of Technology Review have honored the young innovators whose inventions and research we find most exciting; today that collection is the TR35, a list of technologists and scientists, all under the age of 35. Their work--spanning medicine, computing, communications, electronics, nanotechnology, and more--is changing our world.
2003 Innovator of the Year: Alexis Borisy
2003 Humanitarian of the Year: Paul Meyer
Synthesized "biorubbers" that could replace damaged heart and lung tissue and rebuild blood vessels.
Produces portable, inexpensive, microprocessor-size labs for research and industry.
Uses microchip-manufacturing tools to build artificial livers.
Believes that combining different drugs could yield better ways to fight disease.
Aims to speed genome sequencing with a machine that reads DNA letter by letter.
Designs proteins from scratch to create new medicine.
Benjamin G. Davis
Manipulates biological sugars for more precise drug delivery.
Develops fast, automated processes for figuring out genes functions.
Michael E. Gertner
Set out to improve the tiny devices that keep once blocked arteries open.
Patented a lab-on-a-chip to investigate call proteins that cause diseases.
Creates systems for delivering drugs to where theyre needed in the body.
Speeds protein evolution to improve detergents, medicines, and foods.
Helped paralyzed rats walk again and aims to do the same for people.
Maps gene variations that could warn of future disease.
Packs insulin into gel pills that could replace injections for diabetes patients.
Unravels complex biological systems in his search for new drugs.
Uses light to help make diagnosing breast cancer and cervical cancer faster, more accurate and less invasive.
Builds tiny machines that can warn of impending heart attack and monitor healing after surgery.
Wrote algorithms that can predict the functions of proteins from the sequence of a genome.
Transforms microbes into fine-tuned manufacturing machines.
Sheds light on the functioning of individual brain cells.
Connects brains directly to computers int he hope of helping paralyzed people communicate and control robotic aids.
Transforms research from universities and national labs into successful startups.
Came up with a noninvasive alternative to colonoscopy.
Wants to make treating diabetes as easy as breathing.
Programs living cells to sense toxins ot create replacement tissues.
Synthesizes blood vessels that could reduce the trauma of heart surgery.
Spots promising biotech work and helps build new companies to commercialize it.
Develops ways to improve the security of streaming video on the Net.
Sparked the widespread development of Web servers, mainstreaming the nascent Web.
Wrote software that is accelerating the expansion of wireless networking.
Leads the global effort to improve privacy practices and tools on the Web.
Wrote software that allows hundreds of minute wireless sensors to communicate better.
Sparked the rise of the popular Web-based journals known as blogs.
Paul Q. Judge
Wrote software that stops spam and viruses before they enter a network.
Invented a server language that brought live data to the Web.
Lih Y. Lin
Built micromirror switches for faster, all-optical telecommunications networks.
Brings database and Web-like services to remote areas through touch-tone phones.
Develops software that lets companies tailor services to their customers locations.
Vipul Ved Prakash
Developed free and commercial software filters that fight spam.
Provides support services and startup money for entrepreneurs.
Simplifies peoples electronic lives with graphical data management.
Builds wireless sensor networks that improve industrial efficiency.
Fueled the expansion of blogs across the Web.
Wrote software widely adopted by the telecom industry that speeds up optical networks.
Gives unmanned reconnaissance planes insect vision.
Devises powerful tools for assembling and analyzing genomes.
Constructs robots whose expressive faces convey humanlike emotions.
Pioneered software that delivers Web files quickly, anonymously.
Designs architectures needed to build practical molecular computers.
Works to improve quantum computers so they can speed drug design and perform other massive computing tasks.
Fabricates three-dimensional integrated circuits that could vastly increase computer power.
Sparked Microsofts change to .Net.
Invented inexpensive rocket-based surveillance systems.
Devised software that roots out security threats to a networks operating system.
Engineers tiny sensors that can be spread like crumbs around a battlefield or factory.
Writes programs that more intelligently guide actions of robots.
Integrates photonics and electronics on chips to speed telecommunications.
Develops high-volume manufacturing lines for making optical chips into commodities.
Designed an automated tractor steering system that is saving farmers bushels of money.
Delivers "spotlights" of sound for use in concerts, museums, and automobiles.
Makes simpler, more powerful animation tools for novices and professionals.
Tailors Internet application to cell phones.
Employs simulations of human movement to create realistically animated characters.
Built large, bright, organic video displays using materials dismissed by contemporaries.
Programs computers to recognize objects the way the human brain does.
Helps entrepreneurs in emerging nations turn innovations into business.
Fashions photonic circuits that could speed voice and data to homes.
Serves up customized audio and video gems.
Transforms computers ability to recognize human faces.
Codes software that makes handheld computers handier.
Builds brain-imaging machines that are faster and cheaper than magnetic-resonance imaging equipment.
Invented a novel, high-efficiency engine powered by sound waves.
Fabricates organic semiconductors used in flexible and cheap electronic devices.
Designs coatings to improve implanted medical devices and industrial tools.
Turns sea muck into fuel cell power plants.
Builds microturbines that could become the power plant of choice in many settings.
Developed new fabrication methods that could slash the cost of chip manufacturing.
Engineered a minimally invasive process to rebuild tissue for breast cancer survivors.
Transforms nanowires into incredibly small transistors for powerful, flexible computers.
Formulates business strategy for one of nanotechs leading startups.
Designs flight control technology that could lead to unmanned autonomous helicopters.
Devises processes used to make polymers with improved properties.
Shrinks optical circuitry to speed transmissions on phone and Internet networks.
Fashions three-dimensional grids of nanowires that act as electronic circuits.
Makes higher-density hard drives using magnetic nanomaterials.
Improves the stability and effectiveness of protein-based drugs.
David M. Lynn
Synthesizes polymers that are better able to deliver therapeutic genes.
David A. Muller
Images the individual atom that are critical to a transistors electronic properties.
Achieved a breakthrough that could help make quantum computing a reality.
Devises time-release polymers to replace multiple vaccine injections.
Fights credit card forgery with glass-bead “keys”.
Ainissa G. Ramirez
Formulated an advanced universal solder for electronics and optics.
Adds smarts to high-voltage power lines so they can deliver more electricity.
Constructs small fuel cells to efficiently power laptop computers.
Writes software that could alleviate air congestion and lead to far fewer delays at airports.
Built a tiny device that greatly speeds up DNA sequencing.
S. Travis Waller
Writes algorithms that determine why traffic jams form and how to ease them.
Fabricates nanotube crystals that can route optical telecommunications signals faster than competing chips.
Assembles nanowires that could revolutionize lasers and computers.