clement127 | flickr

Business Impact

Every study we could find on what automation will do to jobs, in one chart

There are about as many opinions as there are experts.

You’ve seen the headlines: “Robots Will Destroy Our Jobs—and We’re Not Ready for It.” “You Will Lose Your Job to a Robot—and Sooner Than You Think.” “Robots May Steal as Many as 800 Million Jobs in the Next 13 Years.”

Such stories are tempting to take at face value. Who wouldn’t want to know if their livelihood, or that of their children, will soon be in jeopardy?

Here’s the problem: the findings cited emanate from a wide array of studies released by companies, think tanks, and research institutions. And their prognostications are all over the map. They’re coming so fast and thick, in fact, that we here at MIT Technology Review decided to start keeping tabs on all the numbers different groups have come up with about predicted job losses (and some gains) at the hands of automation, robots, and AI.

Predicted Jobs Automation Will Create and Destroy
When Where Jobs
Destroyed
Jobs Created Predictor
2016 worldwide 900,000 to 1,500,000 Metra Martech
2018 US jobs 13,852,530 3,078,340 Forrester
2020 worldwide 1,000,000-2,000,000 Metra Martech
2020 worldwide 1,800,000 2,300,000 Gartner
2020 sampling of 15 countries 7,100,000 2,000,000 World Economic Forum (WEF)
2021 worldwide 1,900,000-3,500,000 The International Federation of Robotics
2021 US jobs 9,108,900 Forrester
2022 worldwide 1,000,000,000 Thomas Frey
2025 US jobs 24,186,240 13,604,760 Forrester
2025 US jobs 3,400,000 ScienceAlert
2027 US jobs 24,700,000 14,900,000 Forrester
2030 worldwide 2,000,000,000 Thomas Frey
2030 worldwide 400,000,000-800,000,000 555,000,000-890,000,000 McKinsey
2030 US jobs 58,164,320 PWC
2033 US jobs 67,876,460 Oxford University
2035 US jobs 80,000,000 Bank of England
2035 UK jobs 15,000,000 Bank of England
No Date US jobs 13,594,320 OECD
No Date UK jobs 13,700,000 IPPR

As you can see, no one agrees. Predictions range from optimistic to devastating, differing by tens of millions of jobs even when comparing similar time frames. We also found numerous predictions focused on losses in one industry, and many that were the result of a single technology, like autonomous vehicles.  

Of course, not all statistics are created equal. The most commonly cited numbers were from three places: a 2013 Oxford study that said 47 percent of US jobs will be automated in the next few decades, an OECD study suggesting that 9 percent of jobs in the organization’s 21 member countries are automatable, and a McKinsey report from last year that said 400 million to 800 million jobs worldwide could be automated by 2030.

In short, although these predictions are made by dozens of global experts in economics and technology, no one seems to be on the same page. There is really only one meaningful conclusion: we have no idea how many jobs will actually be lost to the march of technological progress.

Want to stay up to date on the future of work? Sign up for our new newsletter, Clocking In.