Skip to Content
MIT News: 77 Mass Ave

Location, location, location

Moving to a new area can significantly affect how long you live, a study of Medicare data reveals.

October 26, 2021

Moving from one US metro area to another can increase a 65-year-old’s life expectancy by 1.1 years, according to an innovative study coauthored by MIT economist Amy Finkelstein.

Researchers have long observed significant regional variation in life expectancy in the US, often attributing it to “health capital”—different tendencies toward obesity, smoking, and related behavioral factors. But by analyzing health records of Medicare recipients who did and did not move from one region to another, Finkelstein and her colleagues were able to separate the role of health capital from the role of environment itself.

map of life span in USA

“The idea is to take two elderly people from a given origin—say, Boston,” Finkelstein says. “One moves to low-­mortality Minneapolis; one moves to high-mortality Houston. We then compare how long each lives after they move.”

All told, the study found that urban areas including New York, San Francisco, Miami, and Chicago have positive effects on longevity while a large swath of the South and Southwest have negative effects. These results deliver important new information about large-scale drivers of US health outcomes—and raise the question of what it is about different places that affects older people’s life expectancy. One clear possibility is the nature of available medical care. Others include climate, pollution, crime, traffic safety, and more.

The scholars estimate that health capital accounts for about 70% of differences in longevity while location effects account for about 15%. “Yes, health capital is important, but yes, place effects also matter,” Finkelstein says.

She and colleagues are now working on a pair of new studies about health care to see what impact place-based differences may have; one study focuses on doctors, and the other looks at the prescription opioid epidemic.

Keep Reading

Most Popular

Geoffrey Hinton tells us why he’s now scared of the tech he helped build

“I have suddenly switched my views on whether these things are going to be more intelligent than us.”

Meet the people who use Notion to plan their whole lives

The workplace tool’s appeal extends far beyond organizing work projects. Many users find it’s just as useful for managing their free time.

Learning to code isn’t enough

Historically, learn-to-code efforts have provided opportunities for the few, but new efforts are aiming to be inclusive.

Deep learning pioneer Geoffrey Hinton has quit Google

Hinton will be speaking at EmTech Digital on Wednesday.

Stay connected

Illustration by Rose Wong

Get the latest updates from
MIT Technology Review

Discover special offers, top stories, upcoming events, and more.

Thank you for submitting your email!

Explore more newsletters

It looks like something went wrong.

We’re having trouble saving your preferences. Try refreshing this page and updating them one more time. If you continue to get this message, reach out to us at with a list of newsletters you’d like to receive.