Skip to Content
MIT News: 77 Mass Ave

Location, location, location

Moving to a new area can significantly affect how long you live, a study of Medicare data reveals.

October 26, 2021

Moving from one US metro area to another can increase a 65-year-old’s life expectancy by 1.1 years, according to an innovative study coauthored by MIT economist Amy Finkelstein.

Researchers have long observed significant regional variation in life expectancy in the US, often attributing it to “health capital”—different tendencies toward obesity, smoking, and related behavioral factors. But by analyzing health records of Medicare recipients who did and did not move from one region to another, Finkelstein and her colleagues were able to separate the role of health capital from the role of environment itself.

map of life span in USA

“The idea is to take two elderly people from a given origin—say, Boston,” Finkelstein says. “One moves to low-­mortality Minneapolis; one moves to high-mortality Houston. We then compare how long each lives after they move.”

All told, the study found that urban areas including New York, San Francisco, Miami, and Chicago have positive effects on longevity while a large swath of the South and Southwest have negative effects. These results deliver important new information about large-scale drivers of US health outcomes—and raise the question of what it is about different places that affects older people’s life expectancy. One clear possibility is the nature of available medical care. Others include climate, pollution, crime, traffic safety, and more.

The scholars estimate that health capital accounts for about 70% of differences in longevity while location effects account for about 15%. “Yes, health capital is important, but yes, place effects also matter,” Finkelstein says.

She and colleagues are now working on a pair of new studies about health care to see what impact place-based differences may have; one study focuses on doctors, and the other looks at the prescription opioid epidemic.

Keep Reading

Most Popular

Conceptual illustration showing a file folder with the China flag and various papers flying out of it
Conceptual illustration showing a file folder with the China flag and various papers flying out of it

The US crackdown on Chinese economic espionage is a mess. We have the data to show it.

The US government’s China Initiative sought to protect national security. In the most comprehensive analysis of cases to date, MIT Technology Review reveals how far it has strayed from its goals.

Image of workers inspecting solar panels at a renewable energy plant
Image of workers inspecting solar panels at a renewable energy plant

Renewables are set to soar

The world will likely witness a wind and solar boom over the next five years, as costs decline and nations raise their climate ambitions.

light and shadow on floor
light and shadow on floor

How Facebook and Google fund global misinformation

The tech giants are paying millions of dollars to the operators of clickbait pages, bankrolling the deterioration of information ecosystems around the world.

travelers walk through Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport
travelers walk through Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport

We won’t know how bad omicron is for another month

Gene sequencing gave an early alert about the latest covid variant. But we'll only know if omicron is a problem by watching it spread.

Stay connected

Illustration by Rose WongIllustration by Rose Wong

Get the latest updates from
MIT Technology Review

Discover special offers, top stories, upcoming events, and more.

Thank you for submitting your email!

Explore more newsletters

It looks like something went wrong.

We’re having trouble saving your preferences. Try refreshing this page and updating them one more time. If you continue to get this message, reach out to us at customer-service@technologyreview.com with a list of newsletters you’d like to receive.