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Artificial intelligence

From health care to infrastructure, how AI is changing the world for the better

New advances and creative applications are harnessing the power of AI to offer solutions to a host of social issues, enabling new leaps in human development.

August 20, 2021

Provided byBaidu

Over the past several years, our world has been confronted with a range of unprecedented and, at times, deadly challenges—from the covid-19 pandemic to severe weather conditions, and a concurrent rise of societal issues including aging population, urban congestion, and unequal access to health care.

But as the development of artificial intelligence (AI) and its applications grow, AI technologies are playing an instrumental role in addressing socio-economic and environmental challenges faced by the modern world, ultimately helping us to reach a better standard of living.

Filling gaps, providing quality care

One of the most promising applications of AI in recent years has been in augmenting human workers in key sectors that are chronically understaffed, contributing to major advances in solving challenging social issues.

In China, for instance, the medical system has long grappled with a shortage of health-care professionals, with an average of just 17.9 doctors for 10,000 people. The situation is even more imbalanced in small towns and rural areas, forcing many patients to travel long distances to cities to access quality medical care and specialist treatments.

Baidu’s Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) was developed to address this urgent need. Built on a foundation of medical natural language processing and knowledge graph technology, the system provides real-time assistance to doctors, informing their judgments, helping them more accurately recognize symptoms, and providing corresponding treatment options. By bringing the expertise and resources of top-tier medical institutions to local clinics, the system offers patients a quality of treatment that would otherwise be out of reach. To date, Baidu’s CDSS has been applied in thousands of primary care facilities, and the number is rapidly growing.

“In the diagnosis stage, sometimes young doctors may miss or ignore some symptoms due to a lack of experience,” says one doctor from a hospital in Beijing that has been using CDSS for two years. “Through the consultation support and real-time alert functions of CDSS, which provide more suggestions and references to physicians, we were able to significantly improve the quality of our medical department."

Accessible solutions through humanized technology

By 2022, approximately 14% of China’s population will be aged 65 and over, according to forecasts by the China Development Foundation, with the number expected to grow to more than 30% by 2050.

For older populations, AI-powered smart speakers and displays can serve as a vital lifeline. Baidu has developed a popular smart display unit with computer vision capabilities and voice interaction technology, called Xiaodu, which can provide a wide range of essential services, including offering health tips, arranging shopping and transportation assistance, providing access to emergency care, and even daily conversation and emotional support.

The success of Xiaodu made it one of the stars of the recent Baidu World, the company’s annual flagship technology conference, which explored how local welfare associations are increasingly distributing Xiaodu installations to seniors.

Xiaodu’s popularity among the elderly highlights another key potential of AI: breaking down barriers and inequalities in access to technology in today’s world. While previous generations saw older populations disenfranchised by the advent of new technologies, AI offers the possibility of applications that will be accessible to all. 

Transforming infrastructure, revolutionizing society

Beyond solving targeted problems, new developments show how AI has even greater potential to reduce errors and improve efficiency in the systems that permeate our daily lives, including urban infrastructure in a growing number of cities.

In China’s Shandong province, Baidu AI Cloud supports safety inspections of the electric power grid, providing instant alerts to avert power outages that could affect millions. In Quanzhou, Baidu AI Cloud is being used to accurately forecast water consumption needs at the city’s main water treatment plant for its population of 8 million people. The system analyzes a range of factors, from weather patterns to holidays, helping to boost the plant’s efficiency and cutting its electricity usage by 8%.

“We always need to make sure the system is functioning and the water quality is stable, but it would be impossible for a worker to stay awake and alert for 24 hours a day, never sleeping,” says Shen Peikun, a worker at the Quanzhou plant. “But now this system can handle the equipment and alert us if there are any sudden changes.”

Baidu’s AI technology has revolutionized one of the most ordinary but vital features of city life: the traffic light. Smart traffic systems can monitor vehicle and pedestrian flows, analyzing a vast array of data to predict future traffic conditions and optimize the traffic flow. In the northern Chinese city of Baoding, the use of Baidu’s smart traffic lights has reduced waiting times by up to 20% during peak rush hours, giving people back more time in their daily lives.

With the rapid development of autonomous driving, including Baidu’s Apollo Moon robotaxis unveiled earlier this year, a more comprehensive smart traffic infrastructure is taking shape, with each component building upon the other to enable safer and more efficient travel for all.

In its research on smart traffic solutions, for example, Baidu has found that even a 15% improvement in traffic efficiency correlates to a 2.4% growth in GDP for a given area, as time and resources formerly ensnared in daily inconvenience are freed up to drive economic productivity. In economies grasping for new levers of growth and competitive advantage, optimization like this can provide an invaluable solution. Greater efficiency can also lead to a better use of the earth’s resources, and a reduction in carbon emissions.

As AI applications multiply—including in smart cities and autonomous driving—and become more integrated with one another, their potential to unlock positive value and to help find solutions to some of the world’s most pressing social concerns will continue to grow.

This content was produced by Baidu. It was not written by MIT Technology Review’s editorial staff.

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