Skip to Content

Sharp Demonstrates Ultra-Efficient Solar Cells

New technology could be twice as efficient at converting sunlight to electricity.
June 20, 2014

The best solar cells convert less than one-third of the energy in sunlight into electricity, although for decades researchers have calculated that exotic physics could allow them to convert far more. Now researchers at Sharp have built a prototype that demonstrates one of these ideas. If it can be commercialized, it would double the amount of power a solar cell can generate, offering a way to make solar power far more economical.

The researchers figured out a way around a bothersome phenomenon: when sunlight strikes a solar cell, it produces some very high-energy electrons, but within a few trillionths of a second, those electrons shed most of their energy as waste heat.

The Sharp team found a way to extract these electrons before they give up that energy, thereby increasing the voltage output of their prototype solar cell. It’s far from a practical device—it’s too thin to absorb much sunlight, and for now it works only with a single wavelength of light—but it’s the first time that anyone has been able to generate electrical current using these high-energy electrons. In theory, solar cells that exploit this technique could reach efficiencies over 60 percent.

The approach is one of several that could someday break open the solar industry and make fossil fuels expensive in comparison. High-efficiency solar cells would lower the cost of installation, which today is often more expensive than the cells themselves.

Exploiting exotic physics requires both understanding the behavior of certain materials and figuring out how to make them with high precision (see “Capturing More Light with a Single Solar Cell” and “Nanocharging Solar”). The Sharp device relies on the ability to make high-quality, nanometers-thick layers of semiconducting materials (such as gallium arsenide), which create a shortcut for high-energy electrons to move out of the solar cell.

Another way to achieve ultra-high efficiencies now is by stacking up different kinds of solar cells (see “Exotic, Highly Efficient Solar Cells May Soon Get Cheaper”), but doing so is very expensive. Meanwhile, MIT researchers are studying the transient behavior of electrons in organic materials to find inexpensive ways to make ultra-efficient solar cells.

Each of the alternative approaches is at an early stage. James Dimmock, the senior researchers who developed the new device at Sharp, says he expects that his technique will initially be used to help boost the efficiency of conventional devices, not to create new ones.

Keep Reading

Most Popular

wet market selling fish
wet market selling fish

This scientist now believes covid started in Wuhan’s wet market. Here’s why.

How a veteran virologist found fresh evidence to back up the theory that covid jumped from animals to humans in a notorious Chinese market—rather than emerged from a lab leak.

light and shadow on floor
light and shadow on floor

How Facebook and Google fund global misinformation

The tech giants are paying millions of dollars to the operators of clickbait pages, bankrolling the deterioration of information ecosystems around the world.

masked travellers at Heathrow airport
masked travellers at Heathrow airport

We still don’t know enough about the omicron variant to panic

The variant has caused alarm and immediate border shutdowns—but we still don't know how it will respond to vaccines.

egasus' fortune after macron hack
egasus' fortune after macron hack

NSO was about to sell hacking tools to France. Now it’s in crisis.

French officials were close to buying controversial surveillance tool Pegasus from NSO earlier this year. Now the US has sanctioned the Israeli company, and insiders say it’s on the ropes.

Stay connected

Illustration by Rose WongIllustration by Rose Wong

Get the latest updates from
MIT Technology Review

Discover special offers, top stories, upcoming events, and more.

Thank you for submitting your email!

Explore more newsletters

It looks like something went wrong.

We’re having trouble saving your preferences. Try refreshing this page and updating them one more time. If you continue to get this message, reach out to us at customer-service@technologyreview.com with a list of newsletters you’d like to receive.