The Brazilian side of the project is led by professor Aldo Lima of the Federal University of Ceará, and includes a husband and wife team, Luciana and Marcelo Bertolini, who previously worked in Murray’s California lab. According to Lima, Brazil’s Ministry of Science and Technology sought out the researchers as part of a thrust to invest more in biotechnology in underdeveloped regions of Brazil.
The herd will be established by crossing the animals at UC Davis with local goats adapted to tropical conditions. “We were making slow progress, so when it came about that the Brazilians thought it was a good idea to fight diarrhea with [genetic engineering], we decided to contribute the technology,” Murray says.
Although diarrhea isn’t of much concern in the U.S., it’s precisely the kind of challenge that Brazilian scientists need to justify growing investments in R&D. Writing in the journal Nature last year, Luiz Castro, a secretary with the Ministry of Science and Technology, noted that a major problem facing genetics research in Brazil is “the perception that the gene revolution has failed to reach the problems of the poor.”
In Brazil’s poor, arid, northeast region, infant mortality rates remain high. In Ceará, home to the research project, 27 of every 1,000 children die in infancy, a rate four to five times higher than that in the United States. Overall in Brazil, diarrhea is the fifth or sixth most common killer of children under five. Diarrhea kills by draining the body of water and electrolytes, such as sodium and potassium. Standard treatment is rehydration therapy to replace the body’s water supply, and zinc tablets.
The goats created in Murray’s lab have been engineered to express large amounts of human lysozyme, a protein found in human milk, tears, and saliva that destroys the cell walls of bacteria. “What we are trying to do is create a milk that would lessen the chance of the diarrhea organism being established,” says Murray.
With the Brazilian scientists, the team plans to create goats that carry additional genes, including those for lactoferrin, a human milk protein that binds the iron molecules which bacteria need to grow.
Lima, who runs a clinical testing center, says the milk could enter human trials in elementary school children within two years. If it proves effective, the Brazilian researchers hope they can powder the milk and export it around Latin America and to Africa.
Although Brazil is eager to finance the study, the country brings its own challenges, including a famously slow-moving bureaucracy. A government ban on the importation of goat semen kept the researchers waiting over a year to obtain the samples from California that they needed to establish the new herd. In the meantime, they have been carrying out laboratory tests on milk imported from California.
Murray says he’s happy the technology has found a home. “I think it’s brilliant,” he says. “We want to see it used. We don’t care which country does it.”