NASA engineers have finished testing a new ion-propulsion system for earth-orbiting and interplanetary spacecraft. The system is more powerful and fuel-efficient than its predecessors, enabling it to travel farther than ever before.
Ion propulsion works by electrically charging, or ionizing, a gas using power from solar panels and emitting the ionized gas to propel the spacecraft in the opposite direction. The concept was first developed over 50 years ago, and the first spacecraft to use the technology was Deep Space 1 (DS1) in 1998. Since then, there have only been a few other non-commercial spacecraft that have used ion propulsion: NASA’s Dawn mission to the outer solar system, launched in 2007; the Japanese deep space asteroid sample return mission called Hayabusa, launched in 2003; and the European Space Agency launched the SMART-1 spacecraft in 2003, it crashed on the moon in 2006. (There are many commercial communication satellites that use ion thrusters.)*
To build the new ion-propulsion system under NASA’s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) program, engineers at NASA’s Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, OH, modified and improved the design of the engines used for DS1 and Dawn. “We made it physically bigger, but lighter, reduced the system’s complexity to extend its lifetime, and, overall, improved its efficiency,” says Michael Patterson, the principal investigator on the project.
Patterson presented a paper describing the engine at the Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit held this week in Denver. He says that his team could start building a mission-ready version of the engine by January 2010, which would take about 36 months to complete.
Chemical propulsion systems are most commonly used for spacecraft, but they require large amounts of fuel and are inefficient for deep-space missions. “You are limited in what you can bring to space because you have to carry a rocket that is mostly fuel,” says Alexander Bruccoleri, a researcher in the aeronautics and astronautics department at MIT. In addition, he says, “you have to compensate for the weight and size of the propellant tanks by building a spacecraft that is flimsy or does not have many structures to reinforce it.”
As an alternative, several research groups are exploring electric propulsion systems. While these engines produce much less thrust than chemical engines, they are very efficient, making them ideal for long-distance missions to asteroids, comets, or planets like Jupiter and Mercury. However, “one of the biggest challenges in electric propulsion is the high power and lifetime of the system,” says Daniel Brent White, another researcher in aeronautics and astronautics at MIT.
*Thanks to readers comments, this information was corrected to include the European and Japanese missions.