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Obviously, we don’t want our tools–including our programming languages–to be more complex than necessary. But one aim should be to make tools that will serve skilled professionals–not to lower the level of expressiveness to serve people who can hardly understand the problems, let alone express solutions. We can and do build tools that make simple tasks simple for more people, but let’s not let most people loose on the infrastructure of our technical civilization or force the professionals to use only tools designed for amateurs.

In any case, I don’t think it is true that the programming languages are so difficult to learn. For example, every first-year university biology textbook contains more details and deeper theory than even an expert-level programming-language book. Most applications involve standards, operating systems, libraries, and tools that far exceed modern programming languages in complexity. What is difficult is the appreciation of the underlying techniques and their application to real-world problems. Obviously, most current languages have many parts that are unnecessarily complex, but the degree of those complexities compared to some ideal minimum is often exaggerated.

We need relatively complex language to deal with absolutely complex problems. I note that English is arguably the largest and most complex language in the world (measured in number of words and idioms), but also one of the most successful.

TR: Please talk about the pros and cons of maintaining backward compatibility with the existing knowledge base (for example, consider your determination to maintain high compatibility to C when you developed C++). It might seem that a clean break would produce leaps of progress; but is this really a realistic proposition?

BS: Java shows that a (partial) break from the past–supported by massive corporate backing–can produce something new. C++ shows that a deliberately evolutionary approach can produce something new–even without significant corporate support. To give an idea of scale: I don’t know what the marketing budget for Java has been so far, but I have seen individual newspaper advertisements that cost more than the total of AT&T’s C++ marketing budget for all time. “Leaps” can be extremely costly. Is such money well spent? Maybe from the point of view of corporate budgets and corporate survival, but given a choice (which of course I’ll never have), I’d spend that money on research and development of evolutionary changes. Note that almost by definition, research money is used to fund attempted leaps that tend to fail while competing with evolutionary changes.

However, evolution shouldn’t be an excuse for doing things the way we’ve always done them. I would like for evolutionary changes to occur at a faster pace than they do in C++, and I think that’s feasible in theory. However, that would require funding of “advanced development,” “applied research,” and “research into application” on a scale that I don’t see today. It would be essential to support the evolution of languages and libraries with tools to ease upgrades of real systems and tools that allowed older applications to survive in environments designed for newer systems. Users must be encouraged to follow the evolutionary path of their languages and systems. Arrogantly damning older code as “legacy” and recommending “just rewrite it” as a strategy simply isn’t good enough. “Evolutionary languages” tend to be very conservative in their changes because there is no concept of supporting upgrades. For example, I could imagine accepting radical changes in source code if the change was universally supported by a solid tool for converting from old style to new style. In the absence of such tools, language developers must be conservative with the introduction of new features, and application developers must be conservative with the use of language features.

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