All hail the TR100! These 100 brilliant young innovators-all under 35 as of Jan. 1, 2002-are visitors from the future, living among us here and now. Their innovations will have a deep impact on how we live, work and think in the century to come.This is the second time Technology Review has picked such a group. The first was in 1999, our magazine’s centennial year. That was a wonderful experience, but we’ve learned a lot in the last three years, and we think this installment is even more exciting than the first.
For one thing, we’ve chosen a special theme for this version of the TR100: transforming existing industries and creating new ones. We looked for technology’s impact on the real economy, as opposed to the now moribund “new economy.” The major hot spots where we think a fundamental transformation is in progress include information technology, biotechnology and medicine, nanotechnology and materials, energy, and transportation. The bulk of the TR100 come from those five areas.
|Watch the events as they happened at MIT World.|
|View photos and read transcripts from the symposium. (Please note: These are raw, unedited transcripts).|
|< if userLevel>2 then %>< else>< end if>Read the PDF (1.8 MB) of the Technology Review magazine article profiling the 2002 TR100.|
|Continue to explore the TR100 and their accomplishments with our annotated link list.|
|View a list of the honorees indexed by industry.|
|Download a PDF of the agenda for the TR100 Symposium and Awards Ceremony to be held Thursday, May 23, 2002 in Cambridge, Massachusetts.|
|Tell us who we missed in the TR100 forum.|
Innovator of the Year
After emigrating from Ukraine to Chicago as a teenager, Max Levchin enrolled as a computer science student at the University of Illinois so he could create and break codes. He moved to Silicon Valley after graduation to start a company based on his cryptography passion. In 1999, he cofounded PayPal in Palo Alto, CA, which quickly became the Internet’s leading person-to-person payments processor. One in four transactions on eBay is settled using PayPal’s system for debiting and crediting checking accounts and charge cards. In February, the company went public, raising $70 million.As chief technology officer, Levchin not only manages servers that store encrypted data about the company’s 15 million members but has led the development of an antifraud program called Igor, named after a Russian fraudster it helped apprehend in 2000. Igor monitors PayPal’s transactions for unusual behavior, alerting personnel to freeze suspicious accounts or head off cash en route to dubious destinations. The FBI has also enlisted Igor to combat wire fraud. Citibank and Bank One, and even eBay itself,have launched rival online payment services, but none has matched PayPal’s market share.
Technology in the Service of Humanity
When Ethan Zuckerman went to Ghana in 1993 as a Fulbright scholar in percussion, he immediately tried to get online; he was a Usenet junkie and eager to e-mail his girlfriend (now his wife). But in bustling Accra, he found only one temperamental Net connection. Zuckerman later became vice president of R&D at Web-hosting company Tripod, which made him a dot-com millionaire, but he never forgot Ghana’s inadequate communications. In July 1999 he left Tripod and in February 2000 cofounded Geekcorps in North Adams, MA. Geekcorps sends volunteers with information technology expertise to underdeveloped countries for four-month stints, where they help businesses-from furniture factories to radio stations-get online, expand sales and thus create jobs.One volunteer even helped launch the Ghanaian parliament’s Web sites. Funded by foundations, aid agencies and private donors, Geekcorps has sent 35 tutors to Ghana and several other countries.A recent merger with the International Executive Service Corps gives Zuckerman the support to expand much further. There’s no shortage of volunteers; more than 1,100 people are on Geekcorps’s waiting list.
|Download a PDF of the 1999 TR100 honorees.|
|The Technology Review archive has the original profiles from our November/December 1999 issue.|
|Find out about these innovators’ recent work in a feature from our current issue.|