Smaller countries that need to tap into bigger markets or the research infrastructure of their wealthier counterparts tend to participate heavily in international collaboration. Nearly half of Switzerland’s applications, for instance, involve a coauthor abroad; for Thailand, an export-dependent emerging nation, it’s three-quarters. Levels of international collaboration vary more among larger countries. Japan and Korea–whether because of geography, language, or culture–participate less in international coinvention than any other major patenters. The United States is the largest collaborator by volume, making connections with nearly every country on earth.
Lines: PCT applications with coauthor located abroad, 2004-2006
Country Color: Percentage of PCT applications with coauthor located abroad
Bubble size: PCT applications authored by top 25 producers