W. Haddon, Jr., “Why the Issue Is Loss Reduction Rather Than Only Crash Prevention,” presented at the Automotive Engineering Congress, S.A.E., Detroit, Michigan, January 12, 1970, S.A.E. Preprint 700196.
W. Haddon, Jr., “The Changing Approach to eh Epidemiology, Prevention, and Amelioration of Trauma: the Transition to Approaches Etiologically Rather Than Descriptively Based,” American Journal of Publish Health, 58 1431-1438, 1968.
W. Haddon, Jr., “The Prevention of Accidents,” in Textbook of Preventative Medicine, ed. D.W. Clark and B. MacMahon Boston: Little, Brown and Company), pp. 591-621.
W. Haddon, Jr., E.A. Suchman, and D. Klein, Accident Research, Methods and Approaches, Harper and Row, 1964. (See especially Chapter 9 and 10).
*Actual and potential birth control and related strategies and tactics can be somewhat similarly categorized. Thus, in brief, beginning on the male line: preventing the marshalling of viable sperm (by castration or certain pharmacological agents); reducing the amount of sperm produced; preventing the release of semen (or of one of its necessary components, e.g. by vasectomy); modifying the rate or spatial distribution of release of semen (as in hypospadias, a usually developmental or traumatic condition in which the urethra opens on the underside of the penis, sometimes near its base); separating semen release in space or time from the susceptible ovum (e.g. continence, limiting intercourse to presumably nonfertile periods, coitus interrupts, and preventing a fertile ovum from being present when sperm arrive); separation by interposition of a material barrier (e.g. condoms, spermicidal creams, foams, jellies); increasing resistance of the ovum to penetration; making the ovum infertile, even if penetrate; prevention of implantation of the fertilized egg; abortion; and infanticide.