Select your localized edition:

Close ×

More Ways to Connect

Discover one of our 28 local entrepreneurial communities »

Be the first to know as we launch in new countries and markets around the globe.

Interested in bringing MIT Technology Review to your local market?

MIT Technology ReviewMIT Technology Review - logo


Unsupported browser: Your browser does not meet modern web standards. See how it scores »

{ action.text }

Back in 1985, while researching my first book, Invisible Frontiers, I had a lunchtime appointment with Robert Swanson, then president and CEO of Genentech. While en route to the interview, I found myself snarled in one of those now-familiar traffic jams on southbound U.S. 101-traffic jams created in part by the biotech revolution Swanson helped launch. I arrived an hour and a half late, in an advanced state of mortification, but Swanson betrayed not the slightest irritation. We repaired to the cafeteria, where he recalled the early days at Genentech with passion and humor.

The passionate and patient aspects of this man came to mind with the tragic news last December that Swanson, who founded Genentech in 1976 with biologist Herbert Boyer, had died of a brain tumor just a few days after his 52nd birthday. There have been generous and entirely fitting testimonials to Swanson’s role as father of the biotechnology industry, but when I think back to the fitful start of our interview, I’m struck by a personality trait of Swanson’s that might well serve as a philosophical statement about innovation. I’m sure he was more peeved than he let on, but patience was the better part of valor. That is what I remember most about Swanson: a strategic patience.

His supply of patience, let me hastily add, wasn’t infinite. Having spoken with many of the scientists who formed the core of Genentech’s original research staff, I know that Swanson could hector and pester and hover and noodge with the best of them. In a nascent field where practical applications were still largely theoretical, he understood the need to have a product sooner rather than later, and he shrewdly chose two targets-insulin and human growth hormone-in part because they already enjoyed a large infrastructure of knowledge both in academia and at the Food and Drug Administration. But he also understood that recombinant DNA technology, and every unimaginable thing that might eventually flower from it, would ultimately transform both science and pharmaceutical commerce. It was just a matter of time.Hence, patience.

Patience is a word-and concept-increasingly quaint in today’s go-go high-tech agora. For several years now, we’ve read ad nauseam about the rags-to-riches sagas of twentysomething dot-com dervishes who have yet to produce a product,much less a profit, and often have nothing to sell but a frisky vision of the future. Compared to Web commerce, biotechnology products seem almost Victorian in the pace and fussiness of their creation:You not only have to deal with the humbling complexity and messiness of human biology, you have to, like, get it approved, dude.Why would a venture capitalist invest in an industry where the risk is so high, the endpoint so uncertain and the time horizon to product so distant, where the fate of an entire company can hinge on the whims of the FDA or the swoon of a single patient in a clinical trial, when staggeringly high returns are routinely available from the e-fad of the month?

0 comments about this story. Start the discussion »

Tagged: Biomedicine

Reprints and Permissions | Send feedback to the editor

From the Archives


Introducing MIT Technology Review Insider.

Already a Magazine subscriber?

You're automatically an Insider. It's easy to activate or upgrade your account.

Activate Your Account

Become an Insider

It's the new way to subscribe. Get even more of the tech news, research, and discoveries you crave.

Sign Up

Learn More

Find out why MIT Technology Review Insider is for you and explore your options.

Show Me