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The findings are among the first to show that caloric restriction has a robust effect on the nervous system, which has been a matter of debate. “This paper demonstrates the protective effect of dietary restriction on muscle and the neurons that regulate muscle function,” says Mobbs. “It’s one of the most convincing papers I have seen demonstrating a protective effect of dietary restriction in neural function.”

Those who are disinclined to diet for their whole lives still have hope, however. Mice that exercised for a month in old age also had healthier neuromuscular junctions, though the findings weren’t as significant as those for caloric restriction. “Just a month of exercise actually seemed to reverse the course of the downward spiral,” says Lichtman.

“If there were ever two scientists who did not want to hear this result, it’s us,” says Lichtman, of himself and Sanes. “We don’t love to exercise, and I find it real torture to starve myself.” Because few people want to or are able to maintain a severely restricted diet, scientists and drug developers are searching for molecules that can mimic these health-boosting effects.

Others say the study gives reason for optimism. “The effects are remarkable, given the short time span and late onset time of exercise,” says Leonard Guarente

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Credit: Copyright National Academy of Sciences

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